List of ALD reviews

Scientific review articles and book chapters on ALD

  • List initiated 3.12.  
  • List currently updated as in the Open VPHA file VPHA-ALD-reviews
  • When you notice missing items, the easiest thing to do is to write the missing info directly in the VPHA-reviews-to-be-added file - it is a Google docs file, which anyone can edit. Alternatively, you can send me (Riikka Puurunen) the info by email, at "".

--- Note 29.2.2016: list currently not updated here. Please see VPHA-ALD-reviews for current list ---


  • Alexandra H. Brozena, Christopher J. Oldham and Gregory N. Parsons, Atomic layer deposition on polymer fibers and fabrics for multifunctional and electronic textiles, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 34 (2016) 010801 (17 pages). 173 references.


  • Simon D. Elliott, Gangotri Dey, Yasheng Maimaiti, Hayrensa Ablat, Ekaterina A. Filatova, Glen N. Fomengia, Modeling Mechanism and Growth Reactions for New Nanofabrication Processes by Atomic Layer Deposition, Advanced Materials (2015) early view,
  • Malygin, A. A., Drozd, V. E., Malkov, A. A., Smirnov, V. M., From V. B. Aleskovskii's “Framework” Hypothesis to the Method of Molecular Layering/Atomic Layer Deposition, Chemical Vapor Deposition 21 (2015) 216-240.
  • In book: R. L. Puurunen, M. Putkonen, Thin films on silicon: ALD,  Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies,  edited by Markku Tilli, Teruaki Motooka, Veli-Matti Airaksinen, Sami Franssila, Mervi Paulasto-Krockel, Veikko Lindroos, Elsevier, 2015. Print Book ISBN: 9780323299657 eBook ISBN: 9780323312233. 
  • Koponen, S. E.; Gordon, P. G.; Barry, S. T. Principles of Precursor Design for Vapour Deposition Methods, Polyhedron (2015), in press.
  • Martin D. McDaniel, Thong Q. Ngo, Shen Hu, Agham Posadas, Alexander A. Demkov and John G. Ekerdt, Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors, Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 041301 (2015);
  • Gordon, P, G,; Kurek, A.; Barry, S. T. Trends in Copper Precursor Development for CVD and ALD Applications, ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology 4 (2015), N1 - N10.
  • In book: H.C.M. Knoops, S.E. Potts, A.A. Bol, and W.M.M. Kessels, Ch. 27 - Atomic Layer Deposition (pp. 1101–1134) in Handbook of Crystal Growth, edited by T. Kuech (Elsevier, 2015). doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63304-0.00027-5 
  • Kechun Wen and Weidong He, Can oriented-attachment be an efficient growth mechanism for the synthesis of 1D nanocrystals via atomic layer deposition? Nanotechnology, 26, 2015, 382001,
  • Neil P. Dasgupta, Xiangbo Meng, Jeffrey W. Elam and Alex B. F. Martinson, Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials, Accounts of Chemical Research, 48, 2015, 341-348,
  • Book chapter: Jolien Dendooven, Atomic Layer Deposition in Nanoporous Catalyst Materials in RSC Catalysis series No 22, Atomically-Precise Methods for Synthesis of Solid Catalysts, Ed. Sophie Hermans and Thierry Visart de Bocarme, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015, pages 167-197
  • Keith Gregorczyk and Mato Knez, Hybrid nanomaterials through molecular and atomic layer deposition: Tow down, bottom up and in-between approaches to new materials, Progress in Materials Science, 75, 2015, 1-37,
  • Robert L. Z. Hoye, David Munoz-Rojas, Shelby F. Nelson, Andrea Illiberi, Paul Poodt, Fred Roozeboom and Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll, Research update: Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin films: Reactors, doping and devices, APL Materials, 3, 2015, 040701,
  • D.V. Nazarov, N.P. Bobrysheva, O.M. Osmolovskaya, M.G. Osmolovsky and V.M. Smirnov, Atomic layer deposition of tin dioxide nanofilms: a review, Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, 40, 2015, 262-275,
  • Axel F. Palmstrom, Pralay K. Santra and Stacey F. Bent, Atomic layer deposition in nanostructured photovoltaics: tuning optical, electronic and surface properties, Nanoscale, 7, 2015, 12266-12283,
  • Wenbin Niu, Xianglin Li, Siva Krishna Karuturi, Derrick Wenhui Fam, Hongjin Fan, Santosh Shrestha, Lydia Helena Wong and Alfred Iing Yoong Tok, Applications of atomic layer deposition in solar cells, Nanotechnology, 26, 20115, 064001,
  • Brandon J. O’Neill, David H. K. Jackson, Jechan Lee, Christian Canlas, Peter C. Stair, Christopher L. Marshall, Jeffrey W. Elam, Thomas F. Kuech, James A. Dumesic and George W. Huber, Catalyst Design with Atomic Layer Deposition, ACS Catalysis, 5, 2015, 1804-1825
  • Adam M. Schwartzberg and Deirdre Olynick, Complex Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition, Advanced Materials, 27, 2015, 5778-5784,
  • Ekaterina V. Skorb, Anna V. Volkova and Daria V. Andreeva, Layer-by-Layer Approach for Design of Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, Current Organic Chemistry, 19, 2015, 1097,
  • Nicolas Sobel and Christian Hess, Nanoscale Structure of Surfaces by Using Atomic Layer Deposition, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 54, 2015, 15014-15021
  • Xinran Wang and Gleb Yushin, Chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition for advanced lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, Energy & Environmental Science, 8, 2015, 1889-1904,


  • Puurunen, R. L., A short history of atomic layer deposition: Tuomo Suntola's Atomic Layer Epitaxy, Chem. Vap. Deposition 20 (2014) 332-344.
  • P. Sundberg and M. Karppinen, Organic and inorganic–organic thin film structures by molecular layer deposition: A review, Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 5 (2014) 1104–1136. doi:10.3762/bjnano.5.123
  • Hämäläinen, J., Ritala, M. & Leskelä, M., Atomic Layer Deposition of Noble Metals and Their Oxides, Chemistry of Materials 26 (2014) 786-801.
  • Delphine Longrie, Davy Deduytsche and Christophe Detavernier, Reactor concepts for atomic layer deposition on agitated particles: A review, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 32 (2014) 010802.    
  • Pedersen, H., Elliott, S., Studying chemical vapor deposition processes with theoretical chemistry, Theor. Chem. Acc. 133 (2014) art. 1476.
  • Book: Cheol Seong Hwang (editor): Atomic Layer Deposition for Semiconductors, Springer, 2014, 263 p. ISBN 978-1-4614-8054-9.
  • Book chapter: M. Leskelä, J. Niinistö and M. Ritala, Atomic Layer Deposition (chapter 4.05) in Comprehensive Materials Processing, Volume 4, Ed. D. Cameron, Elsevier, 2014, pages 101-123
  • Richard W. Johnson, Adam Hultqvist and Stacey F. Bent, A brief review of atomic layer deposition: from fundamentals to applications, Materials Today, 17, 2014, 236-246,
  • Tommi Tynell and Maarit Karppinen, Atomic layer deposition of ZnO: a review, Semiconductor Science and Technology, 29, 2014, 043001,
  • A.J. M. Mackus, A. A. Bol and W. M. M. Kessels, The use of atomic layer deposition in advanced nanopatterning, 6, 2014, 10941-10960,
  • Rüdiger Foest, Martin Schmidt and Hassan Gargouri, Self-assembling and self-limiting monolayer deposition, The European Physical Journal D, 68, 2014, 23,
  • Agnieszka Kurek, Peter G. Gordon, Sarah Karle, Anjana Devi and Sean T barry, Recent Advances Using Guanidinate Ligands for Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Applications, Australian Journal of Chemistry, 67, 2014, 989-996,
  • Ola Nilsen, Ville Miikkulainen, Knut B. Gangrud, Erik Ostreng, Amund Ruud and Hjelmer Fjellvåg, Atomic layer deposition of functional films for Li-ion microbatteries, Physica Status Solid (a), 211, 2014, 357-367,
  • Timothee Blanquart, Jaakko Niinistö, Mikko Ritala and Markku Leskelä, Atomic Layer Deposition of Groups 4 and 5 Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films: Focus on Heteroleptic Precursors, Chemical Vapor Deposition, 20, 2014, 189-208,
  • Kilian Devloo-Casier, Karl F. Ludwig, Chrisitophe Detavernier and Jolien Dendooven, In situ synchrotron based x-ray techniques as monitoring tools for atomic layer deposition, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, 32, 2014, 010801,
  • Hyungjun Kim and Il-Kwon Oh, Review of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition: Technical enabler of nanoscale device fabrication, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 53, 2014, 03DA01,


  • Miikkulainen, V., Leskelä, M., Ritala, M., and Puurunen, R. L. , Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends, J. Appl. Phys. 113 (2013) 021301, Open access:
  • Skoog, S. A., Elam, J. W., Narayan, R. J., Atomic layer deposition: medical and biological applications, International Materials Reviews 58 (2013) 113-129.
  • Gregory N. Parsons, Jeffrey W. Elam, Steven M. George, Suvi Haukka, Hyeongtag Jeon, W. M. M. (Erwin) Kessels, Markku Leskelä, Paul Poodt, Mikko Ritala and Steven M. Rossnagel, History of Atomic Layer Deposition and its Relationship with the American Vacuum Society, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31 (2013), 050818.
  • Hatanpää, T., Ritala, M. & Leskelä, M., Precursors as enablers of ALD technology: Contributions from University of Helsinki, Coord. Chem. Rev. 257 (2013) 3297–3322.
  • Barry, S. T. Amidinates, Guanidinates and Iminopyrrolidinates: Understanding Precursor Thermolysis to Design a Better Ligand, Coord. Chem. Rev. 257 (2013) 3192. 
  • Knapas, K. & Ritala, M., In Situ Studies on Reaction Mechanisms in Atomic Layer Deposition, Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 38 (2013) 167-202.
  • Book: Tommi Kääriäinen, David Cameron, Marja-Leena Kääriäinen, Arthur Sherman: Atomic Layer Deposition: Principles, Characteristics, and Nanotechnology Applications, 2nd Edition, Wiley-Scrivener, 2013, 272 p. ISBN: 978-1-118-74738-4. 
  • Wei-Min Li, Recent Developments of Atomic Layer Deposition processes for Metallization, Chemical Vapor Deposition, 19, 2013, 82-103,
  • Joice Sophia Ponraj, Giovanni Attolini and Matteo Bosi, Review on Atomic Layer Deposition and Applications of Oxide Thin Films, Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Science, 38, 2013, 203-233,
  • Book chapter: Hagay Moshe and Yitzhak Mastai, Atomic Layer Deposition on Self-Assembled Monolayers in Materials Science – Advanced Topics, Chapter 3, 2013, Intech, pages 63-84,
  • Gregory N. Parsons, Sarah E. Atanasov, Erinn C. Dandley, Christina K. Devine, Bo Gong, Jesse S. Jur, Kyoungmi Lee, Christopher J. Oldham, Qing Peng, Joseph C. Spagnola and Philip S. Williams, Mechanisms and reactions during atomic layer deposition on polymers, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257, 2013, 3323-3331,
  • Junling Lu, Jeffrey W. Elam and Peter C. Stair, Synthesis and Stabilization of Supported Metal Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition, Accounts of Chemical Research, 46, 2013, 1806-1815,
  • Catherine Marichy and Nicola Pinna, Carbon-nanostructures coated/decorated by atomic layer deposition: Growth and applications, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257, 2013, 3232-3253,
  • Sang Woon Lee, Byung Joon Choi, Taeyong Eom, Jeong Hwan Han, Seong Keun Kim, Seul Ji Song, Woongkyu Lee and Cheol Seong Hwang, Influences of metal, non-metal precursors, and substrates on atomic layer deposition processes for the growth of selected functional electronic materials, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257, 2013, 3154-3176,
  • S.E. Potts and W.M.M. Kessels, Energy-enhanced atomic layer deposition for more process and precursor versatility, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257, 2013, 3254-3270,
  • David J.H. Emslie, Preeti Chadha and Jeffrey S. Price, Metal ALD and pulsed CVD: Fundamental reactions and links with solution chemistry, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257, 2013, 3282-3296,
  • Karla Bernal Ramos, Mark J. Saly and Yves J. Chabal, Precursor design and reaction mechanisms for the atomic layer deposition of metal films, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257, 2013, 3271-3281,
  • Francisco Zaera, Mechanisms of surface reactions in thin solid film chemical deposition processes, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257, 2013, 3177-3191,
  • Anjana Devi, ‘Old chemistries’ for new applications: Perspectives for development of precursors for MOCVD and ALD applications, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257, 2013, 3332-3384,
  • Thomas J. Knisley, Lakmal C. Kalutarage and Charles H. Winter, Precursors and chemistry for the atomic layer deposition of metallic first row transition metal films, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257, 2013, 3222-3231,


  • Mäntymäki, M., Ritala, M. & Leskelä, M. Double metal alkoxides of lithium: Synthesis, structure and applications in materials chemistry, Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 256 (2012), 854-877.
  • Wiemer, C., Lamagna, L. and Fanciulli, M., Atomic layer deposition of rare-earth-based binary and ternary oxides for microelectronic applications, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27 (2012) 074013.
  • van Delft, J. A., Garcia-Alonso, D. and Kessels, W. M. M., Atomic layer deposition for photovoltaics: applications and prospects for solar cell manufacturing, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27 (2012) 074002.
  • Knez, M., Diffusion phenomena in atomic layer deposition, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27 (2012) 074001.
  • Elliott, S. D., Atomic-scale simulation of ald chemistry, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27 (2012) 074008.
  • Zaera, F., The surface chemistry of atomic layer depositions of solid thin films, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3 (2012) 1301–1309.
  • Knoops, H. C. M., Donders, M. E., van de Sanden, M. C. M., Notten, P. H. L. and Kessels, W. M. M., Atomic layer deposition for nanostructured li-ion batteries, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30 (2012) 010801.
  • Im, H., Wittenberg, N. J., Lindquist, N. C. and Oh, S. H., Atomic layer deposition: A versatile technique for plasmonics and nanobiotechnology, J. Mater. Res. 27 (2012) 663–671.
  • Peng, Q., Lewis, J. S., Hoertz, P. G., Glass, J. T. and Parsons, G. N., Atomic layer deposition for electrochemical energy generation and storage systems, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30 (2012) 010803.
  • Book: Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Materials, Editor(s): Nicola Pinna, Mato Knez, Copyright © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Print ISBN: 9783527327973, Online ISBN: 9783527639915.
    • Chapter 1, Theoretical Modeling of ALD Processes (pages 1–21), Charles B. Musgrave
    • Chapter 2, Step Coverage in ALD (pages 23–40), Sovan Kumar Panda and Hyunjung Shin
    • Chapter 3, Precursors for ALD Processes (pages 41–59), Matti Putkonen
    • Chapter 4, Sol–Gel Chemistry and Atomic Layer Deposition (pages 61–82), Guylhaine Clavel, Catherine Marichy and Prof. Dr. Nicola Pinna
    • Chapter 5, Molecular Layer Deposition of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Films (pages 83–107), Steven M. George, Byunghoon Yoon, Robert A. Hall, Aziz I. Abdulagatov, Zachary M. Gibbs, Younghee Lee, Dragos Seghete and Byoung H. Lee
    • Chapter 6, Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition (pages 109–130), Jens Meyer and Thomas Riedl
    • Chapter 7, Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition (pages 131–157), Erwin Kessels, Harald Profijt, Stephen Potts and Richard van de Sanden
    • Chapter 8, Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronic Applications (pages 159–192), Cheol Seong Hwang
    • Chapter 9, Nanopatterning by Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition (pages 193–225)
    • Chapter 10, Coatings on High Aspect Ratio Structures (pages 227–249), Jeffrey W. Elam
    • Chapter 11, Coatings of Nanoparticles and Nanowires (pages 251–270), Hong Jin Fan and Kornelius Nielsch
    • Chapter 12, Atomic Layer Deposition on Soft Materials (pages 271–300), Gregory N. Parsons
    • Chapter 13, Application of ALD to Biomaterials and Biocompatible Coatings (pages 301–325), Mato Knez
    • Chapter 14, Coating of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 327–343), Catherine Marichy, Andrea Pucci, Marc-Georg Willinger and Nicola Pinna
    • Chapter 15, Inverse Opal Photonics (pages 345–376), Davy P. Gaillot and Christopher J. 
    • Chapter 16, Nanolaminates (pages 377–399), Adriana V. Szeghalmi and Mato Knez
    • Chapter 17, Challenges in Atomic Layer Deposition (pages 401–421), Markku Leskelä
  • Nelson Y. Garces, Virginia D. Wheeler and D. Kurt Gaskill, Graphene functionalization and seeding for dielectric deposition and device integration, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 30, 2012, 030801,
  • Naoufal Bahlawane, Katharina Kohse-Höinghaus, Peter Antony Premkumar and Damien Lenoble, Advances in the deposition chemistry of metal-containing thin films using gas phase processes, Chemical Science, 3, 2012, 929-941,


  • Kessels, W. and Putkonen, M., Advanced process technologies: Plasma, direct-write, atmospheric pressure, and roll-to-roll ALD, MRS Bull. 36 (2011) 907–913.
  • Elam, J. W., Dasgupta, N. P. and Prinz, F. B., ALD for clean energy conversion, utilization, and storage, MRS Bull. 36 (2011) 899–906.
  • Bae, C., Shin, H. and Nielsch, K., Surface modification and fabrication of 3d nanostructures by atomic layer deposition, MRS Bull. 36 (2011) 887–897.
  • Leskelä, M., Ritala, M. and Nilsen, O., Novel materials by atomic layer deposition and molecular layer deposition, MRS Bull 36 (2011) 877–884.
  • Parsons, G. N., George, S. M. and Knez, M., Progress and future directions for atomic layer deposition and ALD-based chemistry, MRS Bull. 36 (2011) 865–871.
  • Marin, E., Lanzutti, A., Andreatta, F., Lekka, M., Guzman, L. and Fedrizzi, L., Atomic layer deposition: state-of-the-art and research/ industrial perspectives, Corros. Rev. 29 (2011) 191–208.
  • George, S. M., Lee, B. H., Yoon, B., Abdulagatov, A. I. and Hall, R. A., Metalcones: Hybrid organic-inorganic films fabricated using atomic and molecular layer deposition techniques, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11 (2011) 7948–7955.
  • Detavernier, C., Dendooven, J., Pulinthanathu Sree, S., Ludwig, K. F. and Martens, J. A., Tailoring nanoporous materials by atomic layer deposition, Chem. Soc. Rev. 40 (2011) 5242–5253.
  • Profijt, H. B., Potts, S. E., van de Sanden, M. C. M. and Kessels, W. M. M., Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition: Basics, opportunities, and challenges, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 29 (2011) 050801.
  • Bakke, J. R., Pickrahn, K. L., Brennan, T. P. and Bent, S. F., Nanoengineering and interfacial engineering of photovoltaics by atomic layer deposition, Nanoscale 3 (2011) 3482–3508.


  • Arto Pakkala and Matti Putkonen, Atomic Layer Deposition in Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings, 3rd edition, Ed. P. Martin, William Andrew, Chapter 8, pages 364-391,
  • Puurunen, R. L., Kattelus, H. and Suntola, T., Handbook of silicon-based MEMS materials and technologies, Chapter Atomic layer deposition in MEMS technology, Elsevier 2010, pp. 433–446.
  • George, S. M., Atomic Layer Deposition: An Overview, Chem. Rev. 110 (2010) 111–131.


  • Kim, H., Lee, H.-B.-R. and Maeng, W. J., Applications of atomic layer deposition to nanofabrication and emerging nanodevices, Thin Solid Films 517 (2009) 2563–2580.
  • Niinistö, J., Kukli, K., Heikkilä, M., Ritala, M. and Leskelä, M., Atomic Layer Deposition of High-k Oxides of the Group 4 Metals for Memory Applications, Adv. Eng. Mat. 11 (2009) 223–234.
  • Ritala, M. and Niinistö, J., Chemical vapour deposition, Chapter Atomic layer deposition, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK 2009, pp. 158–206.
  • Eobert M. Wallace, Paul C. McIntyre, Jiyoung Kim and Yoshio Nishi, Atomic Layer Deposition of Dielectrics on Ge and III-V Materials for Ultrahigh performance Transistors, MRS Bulletin, 34, 2009, 493-503,
  • Clavel, G., Rauwel, E., Willinger, M.-G. and Pinna, N., Nonaqueous sol-gel routes applied to atomic layer deposition of oxides, J. Mater. Chem. 19 (2009) 454–462.


  • Sherman, A., Atomic Layer Deposition for Nanotechnology: an enabling process for nanotechnology fabrication, Ivoryton Press, Connecticut 2008.
  • Zaera, F., The surface chemistry of thin film atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes for electronic device manufacturing, J. Mater. Chem. 18 (2008) 3521–3526.


  • Knez, M., Nielsch, K. and Niinistö, L., Synthesis and surface engineering of complex nanostructures by atomic layer deposition, Adv. Mater. 19 (2007) 3425–3438.


  • Jones, A. C., Aspinall, H. C., Chalker, P. R., Potter, R. J., Manning, T. D., Loo, Y. F., O’Kane, R., Gaskell, J. M. and Smith, L. M., Mocvd and ald of high-kappa dielectric oxides using alkoxide precursors, Chem. Vap. Deposition 12 (2006) 83–98.
  • Schumacher, M., Baumann, P. K. and Seidel, T., AVD and ALD as two complementary technology solutions for next generation dielectric and conductive thin-film processing, Chem. Vap. Deposition 12 (2006) 99–108.
  • Elers, K. E., Blomberg, T., Peussa, M., Aitchison, B., Haukka, S. and Marcus, S., Film uniformity in atomic layer deposition, Chem. Vap. Deposition 12 (2006) 13–24.
  • Hyoungsun Kim and Paul C. McIntyre, Atomic Layer Deposition of Ultrathin Metal-Oxide Films for Nano-Scale Device Applications, Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 48, 2006, 5-17


  • Puurunen, R. L., Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: a case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process, J. Appl. Phys. 97 (2005) 121301. Open access:
  • Putkonen, M. and Niinistö, L., Organometallic precursors for atomic layer deposition, Top. Organomet. Chem. 9 (2005) 125–145.
  • Putkonen, M., Sajavaara, T., Niinistö, L. and Keinonen, J., Analysis of ALD-processed thin films by ion-beam techniques, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382 (2005) 1791–1799.
  • Puurunen, R. L., Formation of metal oxide particles in atomic layer deposition during the chemisorption of metal chlorides: a review, Chemical Vapor Deposition 11 (2005) 79-90. DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200400021


  • Jones, A. C., Aspinall, H. C., Chalker, P. R., Potter, R. J., Kukli, K., Rahtu, A., Ritala, M. and Leskelä, M., Some recent developments in the MOCVD and ALD of high- dielectric oxides, J. Mater. Chem. 14 (2004) 3101–3112.
  • Niinistö, L., Päiväsaari, J., Niinistö, J., Putkonen, M. and Nieminen, M., Advanced electronic and optoelectronic materials by atomic layer deposition: An overview with special emphasis on recent progress in processing of high-k dielectrics and other oxide materials, Phys. Status Solidi A 201 (2004) 1443–1452.
  • Ritala, M., Atomic layer deposition, In High- Gate Dielectrics, Ed. M. Houssa, IOP Publishing, London 2004, pp. 17–64.


  • Kim, H., Atomic layer deposition of metal and nitride thin films: Current research efforts and applications for semiconductor device processing, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 21 (2003) 2231–2261.
  • de Almeida, R. M. C. and Baumvol, I. J. R., Reaction–diffusion in high-k dielectrics on Si, Surf. Sci. Rep. 49 (2003) 1–114.
  • Hand, A., Industry begins to embrace ALD, Semicon. Int. 26 (2003) 46–51.
  • Seidel, T., Londergan, A., Winkler, J., Liu, X. and Ramanathan, S., Progress and opportunities in atomic layer deposition, Solid State Technol. 46 (2003) 67–71.
  • Leskelä, M. and Ritala, M., Atomic layer deposition chemistry: Recent developments and future challenges, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 42 (2003) 5548–5554.
  • Leskelä, M. and Ritala, M., Rare-earth oxide thin films as gate oxides in MOSFET transistors, J. Solid State Chem. 171 (2003) 170–174.
  • Jones, A. C. and Chalker, P. R., Some recent developments in the chemical vapour deposition of electrochemical oxides, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 (2003) R80–R95.
  • John E. Crowell, Chemical methods of thin film deposition: Chemical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, and related technologies, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, 21, 2003, S88. 


  • Malygin, A. A., Synthesis of multicomponent oxide lowdimensional systems on the surface of porous silicon dioxide using the molecular layering method, Zh. Obshch. Khim. 72 (2002) 617–632. [Russ. J. Gen. Chem. 72, 575 (2002)].
  • Leskelä, M. and Ritala, M., Atomic layer deposition (ALD): from precursors to thin film structures, Thin Solid Films 409 (2002) 138–146.
  • Ritala, M. and Leskelä, M., Atomic layer deposition, In Handbook of Thin Film Materials, Ed. H. S. Nalwa, Vol. 1, Academic Press, San Diego 2002, pp. 103–159.


  • Ikeda, K., Yanase, J., Sugahara, S. and Matsumura, M., Atomiclayer- epitaxy of Si, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 39 (2001) S447–S458.


  • (-)


  • Ritala, M. and Leskelä, M., Atomic layer epitaxy—a valuable tool for nanotechnology?, Nanotechnology 10 (1999) 19–24. 
  • Stickney, J. L., Electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy, Electroanal. Chem. 21 (1999) 75–209.
  • Leskelä, M. and Ritala, M., ALD precursor chemistry: evolution and future challenges, J. Phys. IV France 9 (1999) Pr8/837–Pr8/852.
  • Haukka, S., Lakomaa, E.-L. and Suntola, T., Adsorption controlled preparation of heterogeneous catalysts, In Adsorption and its Applications in Industry and Environmental Protection, Ed. A. Dabrowski, Vol. 120A of Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal., Elsevier, Amsterdam 1999, pp. 715–750.
  • Niinistö, L., From precursors to thin films—thermoanalytical techniques in the thin film technology, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 56 (1999) 7–15.


  • Malygin, A. A., Modification of a filler’s surface by the molecular layering method, Compos. Interfaces 5 (1998) 561–569.
  • Niinistö, L., Atomic layer epitaxy, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 3 (1998) 147–152.


  • Haukka, S. and Suntola, T., Advanced materials processing by adsorption control, Interface Sci. 75 (1997) 119–128.
  • Ritala, M., Advanced ALE processes of amorphous and polycrystalline films, Appl. Surf. Sci. 112 (1997) 223–230.
  • Herman, M. A., Physical principles of ultrahigh vacuum atomic layer epitaxy, Appl. Surf. Sci. 112 (1997) 1–11.


  • Malygin, A. A., Molecular layering technology and some of its applications, Zh. Prikl. Khim. 69 (1996) 1585–1593. [Russ. J. Appl. Chem. 69, 1419 (1996)].
  • Malygin, A. A., Malkov, A. A. and Dubrovenskii, S. D., The chemical basis of surface modification technology of silica and alumina by molecular layering method, In Adsorption on new and modi ed inorganic sorbents, Eds. A. Dabrowski and V. A. Tertykh, Vol. 99 of Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal., Elsevier, Amsterdam 1996, pp. 213–236.
  • Suntola, T., Surface chemistry of materials deposition at atomic layer level, Appl. Surf. Sci. 100/101 (1996) 391–398.
  • George, S. M., Ott, A. W. and Klaus, J. W., Surface chemistry for atomic layer growth, J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 13121–13131.
  • Niinistö, L., Ritala, M. and Leskelä, M., Synthesis of oxide thin films and overlayers by atomic layer epitaxy for advanced applications, Mater. Sci. Eng., B 41 (1996) 23–29.


  • Leskelä, M. and Ritala, M., Atomic layer epitaxy in deposition of various oxide and nitride thin films, J. Phys. IV France 5 (1995) C5/937–C5/951.
  • Herman, M. A., Approaches to understanding MBE growth phenomena, Thin Solid Films 267 (1995) 1–14.
  • Suntola, T., Atomic layer epitaxy, In Handbook of Thin Film Process Technology, Eds. D. A. Glocker and S. I. Shah, Vol. 1, IOP Publishing, Bristol, United Kingdom 1995, pp. B1.5:1–B1.5:17.


  • Lakomaa, E.-L., Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) on porous substrates, Appl. Surf. Sci. 75 (1994) 185–196.
  • Heitzinger, J. M., White, J. M. and Ekerdt, J. G., Mechanisms of GaAs atomic layer epitaxy - a review of progress, Surf. Sci. 299 (1994) 892–908.
  • Bedair, S. M. and El-Masry, N. A., Recent advances in atomic layer epitaxy devices, Appl. Surf. Sci. 82/83 (1994) 7–13.
  • Bedair, S. M., Atomic layer epitaxy deposition processes, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 12 (1994) 179–185.
  • Suntola, T., Atomic layer epitaxy, In Handbook of Crystal Growth, Ed. D. T. J. Hurle, Vol. 3, Elsevier, Amsterdam 1994, pp. 601–663.


  • Niinistö, L. and Leskelä, M., Atomic layer epitaxy: chemical opportunities and challenges, Thin Solid Films 225 (1993) 130– 135.
  • Suntola, T., Cost-effective processing by atomic layer epitaxy, Thin Solid Films 225 (1993) 96–98.


  • Suntola, T., Atomic layer epitaxy, Thin Solid Films 216 (1992) 84–89.
  • Usui, A., Atomic layer epitaxy of III–IV compounds: chemistry and applications, Proc. IEEE 80 (1992) 1641–1653.
  • Ozeki, M., Atomic layer epitaxy of III–V compounds using metalorganic and hydride sources, Mater. Sci. Rep. 8 (1992) 97–146.


  • Usui, A. and Watanabe, H., Atomic layer epitaxy of III–V electronic materials, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 21 (1991) 185–219.
  • Gregory, B. W. and Stickney, J. L., Electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (ECALE), J. Electroanal. Chem. 300 (1991) 543–561.
  • Herman, M. A., Atomic layer epitaxy—12 years later, Vacuum 42 (1991) 61–66.


  • Bedair, S. M., Atomic layer epitaxy of semiconductor thin-films, Acta Polytech. Scand., Chem. Technol. Ser. 195 (1990) 17–37.
  • Watanabe, H., Mizutani, T. and Usui, A., Fundamentals of epitaxial growth and atomic layer epitaxy, In Very High Speed Integrated Circuits: Heterostructure, Ed. T. Ikoma, Vol. 30 of Semiconductors and Semimetals, Academic Press, San Diego 1990, pp. 1–52.
  • Aleskovskii, V. B. and Drozd, V. E., Principles of the precise synthesis of supermolecular objects: atomic layer epitaxy, molecular layering, chemical buildup, Acta Polytech. Scand., Chem. Technol. Ser. 195 (1990) 155–161.
  • Leskelä, M., Atomic layer epitaxy in the growth of polycrystalline and amorphous films, Acta Polytech. Scand., Chem. Technol. Ser. 195 (1990) 67–80.
  • Yao, T., Atomic layer epitaxy of II–VI compounds, In Atomic layer epitaxy, Eds. T. Suntola and M. Simpson, Blackie and Son, London 1990, pp. 155–180.
  • Tischler, M. A. and Bedair, S. M., Atomic layer epitaxy of III– V compounds, In Atomic layer epitaxy, Eds. T. Suntola and M. Simpson, Blackie and Son, London 1990, pp. 110–154.
  • Mason, N. J., Comparison of ALE with other techniques, In Atomic layer epitaxy, Eds. T. Suntola and M. Simpson, Blackie and Son, London 1990, pp. 63–109.
  • Leskelä, M. and Niinistö, L., Chemical aspects of the ALE process, In Atomic layer epitaxy, Eds. T. Suntola and M. Simpson, Blackie and Son, London 1990, pp. 1–39.
  • Pakkanen, T., Theoretical aspects of the ALE growth mechanisms, In Atomic layer epitaxy, Eds. T. Suntola and M. Simpson, Blackie and Son, London 1990, pp. 40–62.
  • Sitter, H. and Faschinger, W., Atomic-layer epitaxy of II–VI compound semiconductors, Adv. Solid State Phys. (Festkorperprobleme) 30 (1990) 219–237.
  • There is a review in 1990 I think by Aarik, which needs to be added to the list.


  • Suntola, T., Atomic layer epitaxy, Mater. Sci. Reports 4 (1989) 261–312.
  • Suntola, T., Atomic layer epitaxy, Acta Polytech. Scand., Electr. Eng. Ser. 64 (1989) 242–270.
  • DenBaars, S. P. and Dapkus, P. D., Atomic layer epitaxy of compound semiconductors with metalorganic precursors, J. Cryst. Growth 98 (1989) 195–208.
  • Bedair, S. M., McDermott, B. T., Ide, Y., Karam, N. H., Hashemi, H., Tischler, M. A., Timmons, M., Tarn, J. C. L. and Elmasry, N., Recent progress in atomic layer epitaxy of III–V compounds, J. Cryst. Growth 93 (1988) 182–189.
  • Goodman, C. H. L. and Pessa, M. V., Atomic layer epitaxy, J. Appl. Phys. 60 (1986) R65–R81.
  • Suntola, T. and Hyvärinen, J., Atomic layer epitaxy, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 15 (1985) 177–195.


  • Aleskovskii, V. B., Chemistry and technology of solids, Zh. Prikl. Khim. 47 (1974) 2145–2157. [J. Appl. Chem. USSR 47, 2207 (1974)].

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